Post date: Mar 30, 2014 6:09:17 PM





1. The principles that best define curriculum evaluation are the principle of merit and that of worth. The principle of merit here implies that the evaluation must have value that is implicit, inherent, and independent of any applications. This value is intrinsic; it has no reference to any context. The principle of worth on the other hand implies the value with reference to a particular context or specific application. It is the extent to which desirable ends are being attained.

2. The eclectic approach to curriculum evaluation is the most effective for TVET. This approach is considered the most effective here because it draws from the weaknesses of other models. It cuts across the other models, which are each deficient in one way or the order, taking into account the emphases from the other different models on study of context, determination of clients concerns, use of qualitative methods, assessment of opportunity cost, sensitivity to unintended effects, and development of different reports for different audiences. Other models that may also be effective in TVET but which have their respective deficiencies include,

a) The context, input, process, product (CIPP) model by Phi Delta Kappa Committee (1971) chaired by Daniel Stufflebeam. This model emphasises continuous assessment of needs and problems (context evaluation) in order to determine goals and objectives; assessment of alternative means for attaining the ends (input evaluation); monitoring of the processes (process evaluation) to ensure that the means selected are actually being implemented as well as to make necessary modifications so that the intended ends may be reached; comparing actual ends with intended ends (product evaluation ) to decide whether or not to continue, review, or change the programme.

b) The Goal-Free model by Michael Scriven. This model encourages creativity.

c) The Responsive model by Robert Stake which emphasises sensitivity to clients concerns.

3. Criteria to be used to develop a curriculum evaluation model in TVET include,

i. The model should be one that can be implemented without making unnecessary demands on the community’s resources.

ii. Should be a model that can be applied to all levels of curriculum (programs of study, fields of study, and courses of study).

iii. The model should make provisions for assessing all significant aspects of the curriculum (i.e. the written, the taught, the supported, the tested, and the learned curricula).

iv. Should make useful distinction between merit (intrinsic value) and worth (value for a given context).

v. Should be responsive to the special concerns of stakeholders and should be able to provide them with the data they need for makingdecisions.

vi. Should be goal oriented, emphasizing objectives and outcomes.

vii. Should be sensitive to and makes appropriate provisions for assessing unintended effects.

viii. Should pay due attention to and make provision for assessing formative aspects of evaluation and the special context for the curriculum.

ix. Should be sensitive to and make provision for assessing the aesthetic or qualitative aspects of the curriculum.

x. Should make provision for assessing opportunity cost (the opportunities lost by those studying this curriculum).

xi. Should use both quantitative and qualitative methods for gathering and analyzing data.

xii. Should present findings in reports responsive to the special needs of several audiences.

4. In order to ensure effective instruction in TVET, learning experiences should be organized in a sequential and logical order. The teacher should,

® Know the curriculum and where he/she is heading to (have strong instructional focus).

® Ensure Smooth and quick transitions between components of the learning material.

® Maximize time on purposeful instructional tasks (all aspects of the lesson should be clearly connected to community learning standards).

® Naturally and positively redirect students without disrupting instruction for others.

® Naturally and immediately include students returning from pull-outs.

® Establish routines known by all students.

5. The effectiveness of learning experiences in TVET can be evaluated by using methods that employ attitude scales and simulated situations requiring an attitudinal response. Such methods should include qualitative approaches like interviews and observations. This kind of evaluation seeks to answer the question, “Do student attitudes demonstrate that the curriculum is producing the desired results?”

6. There are five important phases in the evaluation of a field of study:

Preparing for the evaluation: This phase has three major steps of, setting the project parameters during which the purpose and the limits of the project are determined, selecting the project director and the evaluation task force (the director should be a person who has considerable technical expertise in curriculum evaluation while the task force should func­tion as an advisory and planning group, making recommendations to and monitoring the performance of the project director), and preparing the evaluation documents including but not limited to, a statement of the curriculum goals for that field; a comprehensive description of the community and the student body; a list of all required courses in that field with time allocations and brief descriptions of each course; a list of all elective courses in the field including time allocations, course descriptions, and most recent enrolment figures; a random selection of student schedules; syllabi or course guides for all courses offered; faculty schedules, showing class enrolments.

Assessing the Context: Under this phase, the salient aspects of the educational environment that impinge on the field of studies and the critical needs of the learners are identified.

Identifying the Evaluation Issues: Here the special concern of the stakeholders and the distinctions between the several aspects of the curriculum are essential: the written, the supported, the taught, the tested, and the learned curricula considered.

Developing the Evaluation Design: In this phase, the information required, the sources of information, and the methods for collecting that information are identified.

Implementing the Evaluation Design: At this phase the evaluation team moves to implement the design and report the results. Two matters should be stressed here: Firstly, the imple­mentation process should be flexible. If new issues develop or if additional data sources become apparent, they should be built into a revised design and incorporated into the implementation process. Secondly, the results should be reported in ways that will accommodate the special needs of the several audiences. Thus, several reports might be envisioned: a summary written in plain language for the public, an action plan presented to the board and school administrators, and a detailed technical report for the broader educational community.

Once people know, firsthand, and are able to measure the benefits of effective curricu­lum planning and evaluation, the public support for funding will become viable.

7. Effective teaching in TVET can be identified through a process of careful observations. Careful observations indicate that teachers who are likely to teach effectively possess characteristics like, re-teaching, positive self-concept, proper instructional planning, careful selection of instructional techniques, pro­viding feedback to learners, communicating expectations to learners, manages behaviour, and maximizing instructional time.