Post date: Mar 31, 2014 12:44:30 PM

1. The national issues that prompt and shape change in curriculum and educational systems are:

i. Dissatisfaction with the current educational objectives.

ii. Widespread inequality in the distribution of national wealth (high poverty rate).

ii. The desire to catch up with the rest of the world technologically and scientifically.

2. The various participants or stakeholders involved in educational reform and change and their respective roles and interests in policy formulation are:

i. The teacher - As the implementer of the curriculum programme, he should be brought on board from the very beginning so that the appropriate change could be effected.

ii. The society - The interests, needs, aspirations, expectations and value system are important. therefore, the society must be at teh forefront on all issues in the reform and change package.

iii. Regulatory bodies like NECO, NBTET, WAEC and JAMB are needed to provide framework on quality assurance.

iv. Pressure groups like ASUU, ASUP, NUT, COEASU, NBA, market women, NLC, TUC should also be involved so that vital issues affecting the masses and the working class are addressed.

3. Potential problems and areas of conflict in formulation and implementation of curriculum change are:

i. Difference in cultural values among the various ethnic groups that make up the nation - state.

ii. Lack of retraining programmes for teachers to update their knowledge and keep abreast with the ever changing technological world.

iii. Non - involvement of parents. In most cases parents are left in the dark as regards the role expected of them in the reforms and change.

iv. Communication gap - Government usually initiates the reform and change agenda. Consequently it must carryout adequate publicity to inform all stakeholders on their roles.

4. Ways of managing conflict and mobility public support for ongoing curriculum change.

i. Significantly cultural values among the various ethnic groups should be incorporated in the curriculum.

i. Teachers should be involved in all stages of the reform and change. Refresher courses should be organized on a regular basis and made mandatory for all teachers.

iii. Parents must be made to know that the success of any educational programme depends on their maximum participation.

iv. The public (society) should be adequately informed of the planned reform and change as well as the benefits.

5. Examples of sensitive or challenging policy issues in Nigeria, in particular social - political and cultural content.

i. Religious beliefs

ii. Political affiliation

iii. Tradition, culture and value system

iv. Gender sensitivity

v. Ethnicity

vi. Technology

vii. Family structure