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Post date: Mar 30, 2014 7:09:52 PM





1. The national issues that commonly prompt and shape changes in the curriculum and education systems include,

a) Change in social order

b) Change in the nature of knowledge or content of education

c) Change necessitated by feedback from curriculum evaluation.

2. Stakeholders and participants in the school curriculum are individuals or institutions that are interested in the school curriculum. They are the ones who give life into the curriculum and put it into action. They shape the school curriculum implementation and change. These include learners, teachers, curriculum managers and administrators, parents, community members, professional organisations and government/ government agencies. These stakeholders have their respective roles in curriculum change as follows:

Learners: The success of the curriculum can only be measured by the extent of learning that the learners have achieved. They are at the centre of the curriculum; it is for them that the curriculum is designed as such in making any change in the curriculum the learner must be held paramount. Consideration should be given to the learners’ age, gender, physical, mental and emotional development, cultural background, aspirations and personal goals.

Teachers: Since the teachers are the ones closest to the learners, it is simply rational that they have better understanding of the learners as well as the learning experiences that are suitable to arrive at the learners’ individual aspirations and expected learning outcomes.

Curriculum Managers and Administrators: They are in charge of provision of the required human and material resources; the availability and quality of these resources.

Parents: Parents are the ones who provide curriculum materials that are not provided by the school. In addition, they serve to help the school in carrying out a follow-up of educational activities. This implies that parents are actually at the fore – front in discovering the need for curriculum change.

Community members: They basically provide local and indigenous knowledge in school curriculum.

Professional organisations: These often have a better view of the industry where the graduates of the curriculum go. Therefore, they are in a good position to contribute what the curriculum should be like. Since they are specialists, they also have a voice in the licensure examinations.

Government: Since all schools in the country are under the regulation of government, the government decides what to be done in the schools.

3. Generally, the attitude of teachers and leadership role of school heads are the basic potential problems and areas that conflict may arise from formulation and implementation of changes in the curriculum.

4. In order to mobilize popular support for ongoing or proposed change in the curriculum,

a) Teachers must be involved in decision making and the actual development /production of curriculum. They implement the curriculum and it is their feedback that calls for curriculum revision.

b) The teachers should be made familiar with the methods and techniques of implementing the curriculum as well as ways of evaluating it.

c) Money (finance) and availability of supporting materials should be taken care of.

d) Objectives of the intended change should be clearly specified during the planning stage to reduce suspicion.

e) Administrative structure and original health of the school should be considered.

f) Teachers and the public must be informed of ongoing revision and finished products (dissemination).

5. The influence of politics on curriculum policy starts with funding. Both private and public educational institutions rely on funding for hiring personnel, building and maintaining facilities and equipment. All aspects of curriculum depend on local, state and national political standards. From defining goals, interpreting curricular materials to approving examination systems, politics affects curriculum. On the other hand social diversity including religion, culture and social groupings affects curriculum policy issues because these characteristics influence the types of topics and methods for teaching information. Developing relevant curriculum takes into account society's expectations, accommodating group traditions and promoting equality.