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Post date: Mar 28, 2014 4:04:03 PM

1. Three national issues that commonly prompt and shape changes in curriculum and educational system are:

i. Change in educational policy to improve quality.

ii. Worldwide trends to consider the main directions which reforms is taken place e.g. ICT.

iii. Curriculum as a process and product, to broaden the conception of curriculum including several materials and practical components.

2. Participants involved in education and curriculum changes are:

Teachers: from the wealth of his experience in content implementation, super vision and evaluation at the grassroots level are more able to provide first hand information of what can be done to provide a good curriculum.

Society: these are those that serve as i interpreters of the out [put of curriculum are able to inform if the curriculum has made impact in the lives of individuals and the society.

Professional bodies: These are responsible for quality of the content. They are also known as quality assurance such as exam bodies, supervisory bodies. They are the ones responsible for evaluating the content at various levels to assertions if the aims, goals, and o0bjectives has been met and equally set pace for another stage.

Curriculum experts: these could be termed as researchers who are constantly researching to determine the efficacy of the content of programmes. As such they provide statistical data of various programmes which can be used for analysis.

3. The potential problems and area of conflict that may arise from formulation and implementation of change in curriculum are:

i. Organizational culture.

Without dissent, decision will not ensure. This raises the possibility that stake holders in the change will not understand the implication of and for the change, and thus will not effectively participate in the process of change. The necessity of dialog rather than debate is noted as key to successful group dynamics. There must be concentration on listening, suspension of judgment and seeking common understanding.

ii. Perception of stake holders.

Stake holders which may be students, teachers, parents, school leavers etc, have perception which form barrier to the implementation of innovation, and the resultant change that occur.

Students have their view or perception, Parents have theirs and potential employers. These combinations of these perceptions create a barrier to achieving change at local level.

iii. Lack of holistic approach.

The rapid introduction of ill conceived changes without consideration to the effect on individual parts of the system or the system as a whole may in piecemeal approach that produce a fragmentation rather than a coagulation of the organization.

iv. Absence of follow-up.

The implementation phase of change does not represent the conclusion to the effective creation of change. Not only will support structures collapse without continued attention but the absence of an evaluation procedure is vital in confirming that the expected outcome is achieved.

v. Absence of support.

The absence of support from all stake holders will definitely not be healthy for the survival of the change. Change is a social process undertaken over a period of time. Those involved in change must undergo a learning process in order to appreciate the aims and goals of the proposed change.

4. Ways of managing/dealing with conflict and resistance as well as mobilizing popular support for ongoing or proposed change in curriculum are:

i. Gaining teachers support.

Fulfilling teachers needs is one way to getting their support for curriculum reform. In the event of change teachers have a crucial need for recognition and affirmation.

ii. Getting the support of other education stake holders

Once the stake holders also need to be persuaded to accept the intended change. It is crucial to gain support of parent, union leaders, business and political leaders who influence curriculum school policies and actions.

iii. Learners support.

These are the direct recipients of curriculum change. Success in curriculum change depends largely on the extent to which they have accepted to embrace the change.

5. i. Perverted federalism and ethnicity based political domination.

ii. politic of ethnicity and political cleavage.

iii .backlash of colonization and bland education.

It is crucial to note that the integration process is anchored on the mobilization of the citizens of a country; it develops the mental capacity of the individual, makes him moral and productive and thus endows him with capacity to enhance the achievement of interest.

It is clear that unequal access to education creates unequal opportunity and uneven development which in turn undermines stability and development. The education of a society is expected to induct its people into its values, culture, ideology, national interest and common destiny.

Nigerian education is deficient in this regard. The philosophy of Nigerian education as contained in the NPE center on a free democratic society a just and egalitarian society, a united strong and self reliant nation, a great and dynamic economy and a land of bright and full opportunities for all citizens.

The point is that the curriculum content of and administration of education is out of sync with the philosophy of education