Post date: Mar 31, 2014 8:14:09 AM



Briefly mention three national issues that commonly prompt and shape changes in the curriculum and education systems.


The three national issues that commonly prompt and shape changes in the curriculum and education systems are:

(i) Change in social order- the society changes as its social needs, aspirations and interest changes. The current change in the society now is that everybody must be computer literate this change will affect the curriculum. As there will be every need to review the curriculum to accommodate computer study.

(ii) Government policies- the government can decide at any time to make changes on her national curriculum and the rest of educational system will follow. For instance, every Nigerian graduate must have an entrepreneurial skill, this has made changes in the university curriculum.

(iii) Change to improve the quality of education- these changes may by the feedback from curriculum evaluation in curriculum evaluations we want to judge the relations that exist between, the adequacy of educational/instructional purposes, subject matter, learning experiences/activities methodology of instruction, organization of learning activities and content, and evaluation procedures. If there is any despirative in the relation between the above and the aims/goal stated are not achieved it will call for curriculum change.


Who are the various participants or stakeholders involved in education reform and curriculum change and their respective roles and interest in policy formulation?


A heterogonous group does the curriculum planning. In Nigeria it cut across a section of citizens. The reason why it is planned by a people of varying background is obvious. These groups is made up of professionals comprising educational administrators, curriculum experts, subject specialist and even non-professionals teachers, lay citizens, parents and learners themselves. Their respective various roles are as follows:

1. The government- the government has the responsibility of regulating all schools under her. So the government can decide on what to be done in the schools.

2. Learners- the needs and interest of the learners are important factor in curriculum reform.

3. Parents- they represent the community and present the societal needs. Aspiration and interest during curriculum reforms.

4. The teacher- they are field worker right at the grassroots. The teacher dictates areas that need reforms.

5. The profession/quality assurance bodies: such as NUC, NBTE, NCCE, JAMB, NECO, WAEC, NERDC e.t.c. provides necessary information for the operation of any curriculum. Their interest is to ensure that the curriculum is still maintaining its high standard and acceptable anywhere in the nation.

6. Professional bodies like STAN, MAN, and COREN e.t.c as experts they are quicker in sighting areas that needs changes.


What are potential problems and areas of conflict that may arise from formulation and implementation of changes in the curriculum?


Potential problems and areas of conflict in formulating and implementation of curriculum change.

1. Staffing issues- high staff turnover would threaten the inevitably lengthy process of developing, planning and implementation. The new or inexperienced teachers could find it difficult to cope with the flexible nature of new changes.

2. School structures- lack of physical structures in the school can hinder implementation of curriculum changes.

3. It is very difficult to formulate and implement a curriculum successfully if the education system has limited funding capabilities.

4. Poor conditions of services for curriculum implementations are another challenge e.g. non-payment of salaries/allowances.

5. Non-involvement of the teachers/school administrators in decision making and actual development and production of curriculum materials.


Suggest ways of managing/dealing with conflict and resistance as well as mobilizing popular support for on-going or proposed change in the curriculum?


Ways of managing conflict and mobilizing public support for ongoing curriculum change.

1. A good starting point- it will be helpful that all the professional bodies that are to involved in curriculum reforms are fairly represented, which this will be a collaborative effort to explore new ideas or practice.

2. Effective leadership- all agreed that committed professional’s leadership, with capacity for change management is crucial to effective implementation of curriculum. The principal not intimated involved the detail, played a key role in managing the transition process.

3. A shared understanding- the effective school wide involvement usually leads to a better shared understanding of the school curriculum at classroom level.

4. An action plan- a well planed approach that defined school activities and task to be undertaken.

5. Wider consultation- school leaders who actively sought opinions and other community groups at an early stage gave the participants a sense of ownership and this help in dilating the rejection of the change.


Give examples of sensitive or challenging curriculum policy issues in Nigeria, in particular socio-political and cultural contexts.


1. Gender equality.

2. Cultural norms and belief

3. Ethnicity

4. Religious belief

5. Tribalism

6. Political inclination

7. Language disparity.