Akiishi Celestine Terver Bsu/VTE/M.Sc/12/3770

Post date: Mar 31, 2014 9:35:40 PM





1. The national issues that bring changes in the curriculum and education systems include,

a) Change in social order

b) Change in the nature of knowledge or content of education

c) Change necessitated by feedback from curriculum evaluation.

Change in social order

The human society is characterised by the flexibility of change which in turn affects the socio – economic life of the community thus, directly affecting the community’s goals, norms and aspirations. This situation naturally calls for change in the objectives of education. Since education is meant to serve the society, this change in social order forces changes in the curriculum and also dictates what shape the change should be.

Change in the nature of knowledge or content of education

Research has made available knowledge explosion as a result, many new ways of looking at knowledge have evolved. In addition, new ways of learning or organising learning experiences have also evolved; all these exert pressure on the existing curriculum making it obsolete. This shows therefore that changes in the content of education including ways of organising learning contribute immensely to bringing change in the curriculum.

Change necessitated by feedback from curriculum evaluation

Curriculum evaluation is primarily aimed at ascertaining whether or not the educational objectives for which the system is meant to serve have been achieved. When data obtained from such an evaluation indicate inadequacy in goals attainment, the need for change in the curriculum becomes unavoidable.

2. Stakeholders and participants (Learners, teachers, curriculum managers and administrators, parents, community members, professional organisations and government/ government agencies) in the school curriculum are individuals or institutions that are interested in the school curriculum. These stakeholders have their respective roles in curriculum change as follows:

Learners: Learners are at the centre of the curriculum; it is for them that the curriculum is designed as such in making any change in the curriculum the learner must be given paramount attention. The success of the curriculum can only be measured by the extent of learning that the learners have achieved. Consideration should be given to the learners’ age, gender, physical, mental and emotional development, cultural background, aspirations and personal goals before any change should be effected to the curriculum.

Teachers: teachers are the implementers of the curriculum and since they are the ones closest to the learners, it is simply rational that they have better understanding of the learners as well as the learning experiences that are suitable to arrive at the learners’ individual aspirations and expected learning outcomes.

Curriculum Managers and Administrators: They are in charge of provision of the required human and material resources; the availability and quality of these resources.

Parents: Parents complement the government to provide curriculum materials that are not provided by the school. In addition, they serve to help the school in carrying out a follow-up of educational activities. This implies that parents are actually at the fore – front in discovering the need for curriculum change. They also help in curriculum evaluation as most parents check day to day learning activities of their children to see what has been taught.

Community members: They basically provide local and indigenous knowledge in school curriculum.

Professional organisations: These often have a better view of the industry where the graduates of the curriculum go. Therefore, they are in a good position to contribute what the curriculum should be like. Since they are specialists, they also have a voice in the licensure examinations.

Government: Since all schools in the country are under the regulation of government, the government decides what to be done in the schools.

3. Generally, the attitude of teachers and leadership role of school heads are the basic potential problems and areas that conflict may arise from formulation and implementation of changes in the curriculum.

4. In order to mobilize popular support for on-going or proposed change in the curriculum,

a) Teachers must be involved in decision making and the actual development/production of curriculum. They implement the curriculum and it is their feedback that calls for curriculum revision.

b) The teachers should be made familiar with the methods and techniques of implementing the curriculum as well as ways of evaluating it.

c) Money (finance) and availability of supporting materials should be taken care of.

d) Objectives of the intended change should be clearly specified during the planning stage to reduce suspicion.

e) Administrative structure and original health of the school should be considered.

f) Teachers and the public must be informed of on-going revision and finished products (dissemination).

. All aspects of curriculum depend on local, state and national political standards. From defining goals, interpreting curricular materials to approving examination systems, politics affects curriculum. On the other hand social diversity including religion, culture and social groupings affects curriculum policy issues because these characteristics influence the types of topics and methods for teaching information.